It is the biggest in the regions and also concentrates most of the investments on new enterpraiment vineyards. The quantity of new cellars that have been created in the last years is notorious and the most famous and well-known names are also here.
This region possesses a floor of characteristic aluvionales, rocky and sandy, with a height average 900 meters on the level of the sea. The water of thaw of the Mountain range and their 300 days of sun a year they complete a favorable panorama for the vitivinicultura.
Inside the province, the oasis with water represents 350.000 hectares , that is to say 2,5% of the existent surface. The vineyards occupy 140.000 hectares in turn.
The north part of the province you can subdivide in four areas: North, This, High River Mendoza and Valley of Uco ( Tupungato ). near Mendoza , in the districts of Maipú and Luján (located between 800 and 1.000 meters for on the level of the sea), they concentrate the most traditional cellars and some of the new investments. In the Valley of Uco , where there are still few built cellars, many investments were summed up in new vineyards, located between 950 and 1.300 meters on the level of the sea.
More to the South, to some 250 kilometers of Mendoza 's city, San Rafael , another important area of production is irrigated by the waters of the rivers Atuel and Diamond.
The dynamism of these areas producers took to create in 1987 the first area of Controlled Denomination of Origin (DOC) for the see-no in Luján of Whose. In 1990, one also believes San Rafael 's DOC..
Mendoza 's province is an excellent example of what can make the willful, patient man, worker and intelligent starting from practically swims her.
Mendoza is a desert with mountains where not more than 3% of his surface it is cultivated today and developed, and that thanks to the intelligent distribution of the waters for watering, from the times of his primitive inhabitants, the huarpes, going by the dikes, channels and the engineer's canals Cipolletti, until arriving to the watering systems for leak of the present time.
The dry climate and I heal of the province it favors the whole perennial frutiagricultura and the annual cultivations of fruits and vegetables.
But the water also has its aggressive form: the hail. This destructive element was combatted historically of many flow-level: burning fuel in tachos inside the plantations, with big fans and rockets graniceros and, contemporarily, with special airplanes that sprinkle certain products on the clouds loaded with ice to dissolve it.
But the most pragmatic thing has been the cloths with which they cover fruit-bearing and vineyards to take a short cut the celestial ice. That yes, the plantations survived, but the tourist pictures have lost their quality before the veil that covers the landscape.
Mendoza had, besides his Spanish colonial base, a strong Italian in-migration at the beginning of the XIX century, like he is reflected in the most conspicuous last names in his history and economy: Villanueva, Goyenechea, Benegas, Escorihuela, Civit, Arizu and Giol, Gargantini, I Cough, Vicchi, Furlotti, Tittarelli, Bianchi. To them some Englishmen were added as Norton and Day and Swiss as Suter.
The viticultura was developed from the beginning without transitions of' the conquest and colonization in the XVI century, and for natural selection the plantations were prospering in the most capable areas in agreement with the available means in each moment. Today in day the technicians divide in different areas the areas where they have left concentrating the vineyards.
Coinciding with the waves inmigratorias, the implanted cepajes was evolving surprisingly, since those of origin were the French. Of Bordeaux the Cabernet arrived Sauvignon, the Merlot and the Malbec; of Burgundy , the Pinot Noir as well as the Chardonnay, and the Semillón was also introduced, the Sauvignon Blanc and the Pinot Blanc. Italy contributed Sangiovese, Bonarda, Barbera; Spain , Pedro Giménez, Tempranillo, Torrontés. Of Germany , Riesling and Gewürstraminer.
Although the basic immigration was ítalo-Spanish, the school vitivinícola was French, and of there the main teachers and the cultural and technological base were obtained.
With the time and the fashions arrived the contributions of California and Australia , responding to the tendencies of the marketing and the international trade.
At the moment in Mendoza something is resided more than 70% of the vineyards of the country in the two types of basic conductions: espalderos and arbors, with a proportional production of wines.
Certainly the wine is not the only by-product of the vine, since they also appear the table grapes, the raisins and the concentrated musts and derived distilled products of the wine, as liquors, brandies and staple.
Already with more sophisticated industrial treatments it is obtained of the seeds the grape oil. And of the residuals of the fermentation vínica, the tartaric acid, the alcohol vínico and until the enocianina that is the present coloring principle in the husk of the grapes inks.
Mendoza 's province can be divided in five areas vitivinícolas: North, Center-south, East, Valley of Uco and High River Mendoza, each one with their own characteristics and specialties.